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Center for Music Research

The Center for Music Research (CMR) at Florida State University was founded in 1980 to bring together the already strong research component of the College of Music with its newly created computer facilities. The purpose of the Center is to create effective research environments for the pursuit of music scholarship in all modes of inquiry for both students and faculty. CMR exists to foster research and publication and provides a support system that attempts to blend the best human and musical characteristics of the music researcher and teacher with the best of technology. The following CMR activities are supported by the College of Music at Florida State University: graduate education, faculty and student research, post-doctoral study, and occasional workshops, symposia, and visiting scholars.

The aims of the Center are to:

  • Develop new knowledge about music, music education, music therapy, and related areas through scholarly inquiry,
  • Offer innovative educational, consultative, and other support programs to foster research, teaching, and to guide curricular decisions,
  • Provide space and facilities to develop applications of research to music performance, teaching, therapy, and analysis,
  • Support research collaborations between faculty and students,
  • Encourage students and faculty to develop new technology as well as to utilize existing technology and techniques in teaching and research,
  • Establish and maintain relations with similar research and teaching centers at other academic institutions.

The Continuous Response Digital Interface

Please see:

Geringer, J. M., Madsen, C. K., & Gregory, D. (2004). A fifteen-year history of the Continuous Response Digital Interface: Issues relating to validity and reliability. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 160, 1 – 15.


This paper contains an overview, analysis, and comments regarding fifteen years of research using the Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI). A brief history of the CRDI development is given followed by a general explanation of issues relating to validity and reliability, especially concerning CRDI studies in music. Specific studies are addressed relating to assessments using this device in relationship to other continuous response devices and other traditional measurement scales.

Published Articles

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Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Capperella 1989 SJME Music and Nonmusic Focus of attention PPMC .90 (40)
Madsen & Geringer 1990 CRME Music majors Focus of attention PPMC .93 (20) Music majors,
.87 (20)
Nonmusic majors
Brittin 1991 JRME College students Preference genre category
Johnson 1991 SJME Music majors Band performance ratings
Madsen, Capperella, & Johnson 1991 JIAMH Children Preference
Madsen, Geringer, & Heller 1991 CNME Musicians Intonation
Standley 1991 JMT Music majors Comfort-discomfort
Brittin 1992 CRME College musicians Beat detection
Geringer, Duke & Madsen 1992 CRME Music majors Beat perception
Capperella-Sheldon 1992 JBR Music & Nonmusic majors Aesthetic experience
Johnson 1992 JETS Adjudicators Live music performance
Rentz 1992 JRME Musicians & Nonmusicians Focus of attention
Walls, Taylor, & Falzone 1992 JMT Musicians & Nonmusicians Tempo perception
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Madsen, Brittin, & Capperella-Sheldon 1993 JRME Musicians Aesthetic response
Madsen, Byrnes, Capperella-Sheldon & Brittin 1993 JMT Musicians Aesthetic response
Madsen & Fredrickson 1993 JMT Musicians Tension
Madsen, Geringer & Heller 1993 CRME Musicians Intonation
Byrnes 1994 SJME Music & Nonmusic majors Stress
Byo & Brooks 1994 CME Jr. High & Music educators Performance evaluation
Fredrickson 1994 JRME Band musicians Observation (eye contact)
Fredrickson 1994 SJME Music majors, Middle, High School Tension
Gregory 1994 JRME Elementary, High school , Music Majors Preference PPMC .64 (52)
.84 (67)
Gregory 1994 JBR Middle, High School, & College instrumentalists Preference
Johnson & Fredrickson 1994 JBR Conductors Intensity
Sheldon 1994 JRME Music majors Tempo modulation
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Fredrickson 1995 PofM Music majors Tension, aesthetic response
Brittin & Sheldon 1995 JRME College musicians Preference
Colwell 1995 JRME Music education students Observation (Teacher intensity)
DeNardo & Kantorski 1995 CRME Children Music cognition
Geringer 1995 JRME Music & Nonmusic majors Dynamics
Geringer & Madsen 1995/6 CRME Music & Nonmusic majors Focus of attention
Hair 1995 CRME University students, Children Mood categories
Johnson & Kelly 1995 CME Jr.High & college instrumentalists Focus of attention PPMC .86 (20)
Brittin 1996 JRME College musicians Preference
Byrnes 1996 JMT College students Stress
Fredrickson & Johnson 1996 PM Music majors Tension
Johnson 1996 JRME Musicians & Nonmusicians Perceived rubato AQ .86 (15)
Kantorski & DeNardo 1996 PM K-4 children Change discrimination
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Brittin & Duke 1997 JRME College musicians Intensity
Byrnes 1997 JRME Elementary, Middle school, High school, TMH students Music likeability PPMC .51 (8) .76 (12)
Blocher, Greenwood, & Shellahamer 1997 JRME Band Directors Observation (Conducting) AQ .80 (18)
Fredrickson 1997 MJRME Elementary Education majors Tension
Fredrickson 1997 JRME Elementary, 8th Grade, High school, Music & Nonmusic Majors Tension PPMC .82 – .98
Madsen 1997 JRME Musicians Focus of attention, Aesthetic response
Madsen 1997 JMT Musicians Emotional response (2DCRDI)
Madsen, Geringer, & Fredrickson 1997 CRME Musicians Focus of attention
Misenhelter & Lychner 1997 CRME Music majors Aesthetic response
Sheldon & Gregory 1997 JRME Elementary, Middle, High school, Undergraduates, Graduates, Faculty Tempo change perception PPMC .92(20)
Siebenaler 1997 JRME Piano teachers Observation (Interactions)
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Davis 1998 JRME Choral conductors Observation (Teaching) PPMC .85 (24)
DeNardo & Kantorski 1998 JRME Children Music cognition
Goins 1998 JMT Music majors Mood states
Gregory 1998 JMT Middle school Reactions to ballet
Lychner 1998 JRME Music majors Aesthetic, felt emotion,
free response, & tension
PPMC .95 (64)
Madsen 1998 JRME Musicians Emotion, tension (2DCRDI)
Fredrickson 1999 JRME Music majors Tension
Frego 1999 JRME Music & Nonmusic majors Tension PPMC .93 (42)
Madsen & Geringer 1999 CRME Music majors Tone quality, Intonation PPMC .92-.98 (80)
Crist 2000 CME Music majors Tempo & dynamic changes
Fredrickson 2000 JMT Music & Nonmusic majors Tension
Staum & Brotons 2000 JMT Music majors Relaxation response
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Frega 2000/01 CRME Musicians & Nonmusicians Aesthetic response
Madsen & Coggiola 2001 CRME Musicians & Nonmusicians Focus of attention, Aesthetic response
Misenhelter 2001 MJRME Elementary ed majors Tension and dynamics
Misenhelter & Price 2001 JRME Music & Nonmusic majors Response to music PPMC .89 (31)
Gregory 2002 JMT Cognitively-impaired older adults Focused attention
Lychner 2002 MJRME Music & Nonmusic majors Aesthetic response
Geringer & Madsen 2003 IJME Music majors Aesthetic response to pitch change
Kelly 2003 CME Music Education interns Time-use analysis
Fredrickson & Coggiola 2003 JRME Music & Nonmusic majors Tension
Johnson, Fredrickson, Achey & Gentry 2003 JBR Music majors Conductor evaluation
Schnoor 2003 JBR Expert judges Rehearsal strategies of conductors
Thorisson 2003 CRME High School students Music style discrimination
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Coggiola 2004 JRME Jazz and non-jazz musicians Aesthetic response PPMC .95 (16 jazz)
(16 nonjazz)
Parisi 2004 IJME Children (4th & 5th Grade) Song recognition and likeability
Madsen & Geringer 2004 CRME Music majors Aesthetic response to tempo change
Williams 2005 JRME Jr. High-Music Majors Focus of Attention to Melody/Harmony .82
Andrews & Lychner 2006 MJRME Music & non-music majors Aesthetic experience PPMC voice = .95-.99 instru= .35-.99 nonmus = .40-.99 (55)
Killian & Basinger 2007 JRME Vocal, instrumental & non-music majors Judgment of choral blend AQ & PPMC .87 (18)
Hancock 2008 CRME Music & Non-music majors Aesthetic response to pitch change PPMC
Hedden & Johnson 2008 CRME Music majors & music teachers Judgment of pitch accuracy, response latency music m = .79
Lychner 2008 IJME Music & non-music majors Aesthetic response PPMC nonmus = .90 (64)
Paul 2008 JMT 4th graders Aesthetic experience PPMC .99 (57)
Whipple 2008 JMT Preterm infants Stress level, behavior state PPMC .97 & .95 (6)
Wollner & Auhagen 2008 MUSP College students with music training Perception of conductor’s expressive gestures
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Darrow & Johnson 2009 IJME Music therapy & music education majors Quality ratings of nonverbal behaviors PPMC .87 (2 judges)
Gregory 2009 JMT Music therapy majors Self-Assessment of comfort & skill
Paul 2009 UPDA Adult musicians & music majors Aesthetic experience PPMC .97 (56)
Dekaney, Macedo, & Coggiola 2010 CME Music & non-music majors Aesthetic response
Geringer 2010 JRME Music majors Preference for Tempo and Pitch Levels
Geringer, MacLeod & Allen 2010 JRME Music majors (string & non-string players) Pitch perception of vibrato
Hackworth & Fredrickson 2010 JRME Music majors Musical Tension
Williams, Fredrickson, & Atkinson 2011 IJME Music majors Perceived Tension & Focus of Attention to Melody/Harmony
Silvey 2011 RIME Music & non-music majors Musical Tension
Author Year Journal Participants CRDI Application Reliability Data (N)
Hackworth & Fredrickson 2012 UPDA Children (7-14 yrs) Musical Tension
Johnson, Madsen & Geringer 2012 IJME Music majors Rubato Performance PPMC .83, .96 (40)
Johnson, Madsen & Geringer 2012 JRME Music majors Rubato Performance
Geringer & Sasanfar 2013 JRME Music majors Expressivity
Hackworth 2013 IJME Music & non-music teachers Expert ratings of Vocal Health
Diaz 2013 PofM Music majors Flow, Aesthetic response
Silveira & Diaz 2014 PofM Music majors Expressivity

Journal Title

IJME = International Journal of Music Education
JRME = Journal of Research in Music Education
JMT = Journal of Music Therapy
PofM = Psychology of Music
UPDA = UPDATE: Applications of Research in Music Education

Reliability Statistic

PPMC = Pearson Product Moment Correlation
(N) refers to number of subjects or observation videotapes in reliability runs